Inscription on the Tomb of an Perfume Trader

Inscription on the Tomb of an Perfume Trader

Games of Ancient Greece—The Life and Death of a Greek Athlete

Long jumpers in ancient Greece (Image: By Unknown/National Archaeological Museum, Athens)

The Belongings of an Athlete

/> Strigils were used by Greeks and Romans to scrape layers of sand and oil from their bodies after exercising. (Image: By Anonymous (Roman Empire) – Walters Art Museum/Public domain)

The young man was laid to rest with items belonging to an athlete who had participated in specific games of Ancient Greece. He had a strigil, which is a small bronze implement for scraping olive oil from your body. The way of getting clean in the Greek and Roman world was not to use soap—a Celtic invention—but to smear yourself with olive oil.

The olive oil would pick up all of your dry, dead skin, your sweat, the dirt, and you would scrape everything off. They were probably much cleaner then than we are when coming out of the shower. Then they were ready to get in a bath and relax in the water.

This is a transcript from the video series Classical Archaeology of Ancient Greece and Rome. Watch it now, on The Great Courses.

There was an unguentarium, a little vial that would have had perfume in it to rub on his body or after the bath. There were the prizes that he had won as an athlete, at least some of them: Three beautiful amphorae from the city of Athens. He had participated in the Games. He might have also been an Olympic athlete during the Olympic year.

The prizes for the winners were big, beautiful Athenian pots were filled with olive oil. (Image: By Creator:Euphiletos Painter/Public domain)

The prizes for the winners were big, beautiful Athenian pots filled with olive oil, which was worth a lot of money. There was no such thing as the amateur athlete in antiquity. On one side of the pot was Athena, with her shield and spear and helmet, but on the other side were pictures of an event. You would get, as a runner, Panathenaic amphorae showing runners. As a boxer, the Panathenaic amphorae showed boxers. Ikkos had three and they were all different: There was a charioteer, a scene of boxers, and a scene of a double image on a vase that showed discus and long jump.

The Physique of an Ancient Athlete

What was he? They brought him to a laboratory where physical anthropologists studied his frame. He was about 5 feet 6 inches tall, and in perfect condition, both as a specimen in terms of his physique and also the bone preservation. The latter was very good because of the stone chamber he was buried in. If you are buried in the soil, many soils are acid and will eat the bone.

They were able to analyze both the growth of the bone and the muscle attachments. Muscle attachments are the little holes in the bone where a muscle has its end inserted to hold on, and they get bigger and bigger as you work that muscle. You can determine the robusticity of the person from the muscle attachments, as well as the bone itself.

He had an overall robusticity that was remarkable, especially in the legs. He didn’t seem to be a boxer. Boxers tend to build up their upper bodies in the deltoid muscles from continual punching. Greco-Roman boxers held their hands continually at a high level and punched, as we can tell from the vase paintings. Boxing did not seem likely because of the overall development of the body.

The charioteer seemed even less likely. The charioteers themselves were not important athletes. It was the horses that were important, and the owner of the horses who was crowned as the winner. Often the charioteers were boys, like the famous bronze charioteer from Delphi who rode a winning chariot from a tyrant’s entry from Sicily. It didn’t seem likely that this great athlete would have been the charioteer.

That left the discus and long jump. Those two events were part of the ancient pentathlon. That fivefold event called for every part of the body to be well developed. It seemed clear that was this young man’s event—he was a pentathlete.

An Athlete’s Life in Ancient Greece

The interesting question was what kind of a life did he lead? With modern scientific analysis, we can determine diet. He lived in a part of the world where people, even in 500 BC, were obsessed with the health and diet of athletes. In the modern era, we sometimes think we’re a sports-crazy world. We are nothing compared to the ancient Greeks, and to a lesser extent, the ancient Romans, who worshiped—very literally—athletes.

Winning athletes bore on their heads a ribbon that was their prize. They tied it around their brows. The only other people allowed to do that were Gods, heroes, priests, and priestesses. It was a mark of divinity.

If you were a great athlete, somebody would come along, scoop up the scrapings from the body after you cleaned yourself, and sell them on the market as a medicine because it was so valuable—it came from this great athlete. If you won several times at Olympia, you were allowed to have a portrait sculpted of your body that was then located on public display so people could study the musculature and admire you.

He had this perfect body. Thanks to isotope studies of what’s in his bone, we now can look at his diet, because it is very true—you are what you eat. His body was an artifact that he had created by every decision he made about which spring to drink out of, what meal to eat, what exercises to do during the day. All of his habitual positions during the day—did he squat, stand, run frequently—all of these things shaped his body, just as every disease shaped his body.

Every period that a person goes without food as a child leaves a mark on the teeth. Your teeth have little laminations that appear annually, like tree rings. You can pick out over the years—both in the teeth and some of the bones—the marks of the lean years, the famine years, the malnourished years, when the person wasn’t getting enough to eat.

Ikkos had perfect growth, every year. He was never without food. He seemed to have a very specific diet, one associated with an ancient Greek school of scientific, medical, and dietary thought, specific to southern Italy, which recommended a vegetarian diet with occasional jolts of meat. He seems to have been raised to be an athlete, in perfect condition. They compared him to modern athletes’ frames and decided he would have done very well at the modern Olympics if he’d been called upon to compete.

We have then, in this remarkable athlete from ancient Taras, a witness to the intensity of the fervor that the ancient Greeks felt for their games and their athletes. He was brought up from the cradle to be an athlete, both in the training and in the dietetic regimen—something that they took much more seriously, it would seem, even than we do.

Common Questions About the Games in Ancient Greece

Popular games in ancient Greece were many of the same played during the Olympic year, such as pentathlon, wrestling, boxing, and discus.

The oldest sport and one of the most popular of the games in ancient Greece is wrestling, or pale as it was called then. It dates back to 3000 BCE and was included in the Olympics in 708 BCE.

A healthy body was vital to the ancient Greeks , as was entertainment, but even more important was perfection. The Olympics provided an arena for all of this in ancient Greece.

The most fatal sport of the games in ancient Greece was Pankration. Pankration was a blend of wrestling and boxing, much like modern Mixed Martial Arts.

Saint Denis Tomb

Beneath this building, former site of the Church of Saint Francis, the first Catholic Church in Natchitoches, lie the remains of The Chevalier Louis Juchereau de Saint Denis.

Born at Quebec September 17, 1676, died at Natchitoches June 11, 1744. A gallant soldier of France, explorer of Louisiana, peacemaker and trader with the Indians, founder of Natchitoches in 1714, Commandant of the Poste de Natchitoches, 1720 to 1744.

Erected 1954 by Daughters of the American Revolution of Louisiana.

Location. 31° 45.657′ N, 93° 5.177′ W. Marker is in Natchitoches, Louisiana, in Natchitoches Parish. Marker is at the intersection of Church Street and Front Street (State Highway 6), on the right when traveling west on Church Street. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Natchitoches LA 71457, United States of America. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. The Red River Campaign (about 400 feet away, measured in a direct line) Ft. St. Jean Baptiste (about 400 feet away) First Mass in Natchitoches (about 400 feet away) Basilica of the Immaculate Conception (about

500 feet away) The Legacy of Catholicism (about 500 feet away) Ducournau Building (about 500 feet away) The Natchitoches Parish Old Courthouse (about 500 feet away) The Old Natchitoches Parish Courthouse (about 500 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Natchitoches.

Also see . . . Louis Juchereau de St. Denis. Wikipedia (Submitted on October 31, 2017, by Tom Bosse of Jefferson City, Tennessee.)

Time Machine: Monument near Dubuque marks grave of Iowa’s first white settler

French Canadian Julien Dubuque is credited with being Iowa’s first white settler. It took almost 70 years after his death before a landmark monument was built over his gravesite near the Eastern Iowa city that bears his name.

Dubuque arrived in northeast Iowa around 1788, living among the Meskwaki (called Fox by the French) in Little Fox Village. He was reputedly charismatic and became a close friend of Meskwaki Chief Peosta and eventually marrying Peosta’s daughter, Potosa.

Through his association with the tribe, Dubuque discovered the abundance of lead ore in the bluffs and valleys west of the Mississippi that the Indians until then had kept secret.

He soon gained permission from the tribe to mine the lead.

To cover his bases, Dubuque also obtained permission in 1796 from the governor of the Spanish province of Louisiana, Baron Carondelet, to take ore from the “Mines of Spain” in a 50-square-mile area of the Spanish-held territory.

Dubuque continued his work in the mines and as a trader for more than 20 years until he died March 24, 1810. He was buried with tribal honors before native chiefs and hundreds of men and women who climbed to his burial place atop a bluff overlooking the Mississippi River.

After his death, the Indians no longer felt obligated to allow whites on their land. To discourage miners from trespassing on Dubuque’s claim, the Meskwaki destroyed all his buildings and chased miners back across the Mississippi.

The natives retained control of the land until the Blackhawk Purchase in 1833, when they ceded their land west of the Mississippi to the United States. Settlers streamed into the area, and miners took over the mines, establishing a Miners’ Association.

The village near where Dubuque mined was named for him in 1833 at a public meeting, honoring him as the area’s first pioneer. His gravesite was difficult to access and was mostly ignored.

The editor of the Milwaukee Sentinel, however, visited the grave in 1849.

“We found the tomb, made of stone, under a lofty bluff just below the city,” he reported. “It had a leaden door, with a wooden cross on it, and the inscription, ‘Julien Dubuque, Miner of the mines of Spain died 24th day of March, 1810, aged 45 years, 6 months.’ ”

The effort to erect a memorial to Dubuque began in 1858. Area residents proposed a monument made of local limestone carved into a bluff and wanted the words from the wooden cross — which was long gone — to be carved on the memorial.

In 1870, the old settlers of the area were still contemplating plans for the monument. One of those settlers, Eliphlet Price, has visited Dubuque’s grave often between 1834 and 1835.

Price said he and William Gordon of Missouri set out early on a Sunday morning in June 1834 to visit the grave as well as Dubuque’s homestead on Catfish Creek.

He later described the grave’s stone vault about a mile south of Dubuque as “having a commanding view of the Mississippi River.”

“The exterior of the building was about 8 feet by 10,” he said. “The walls were of stone, and about 12 inches in thickness. The stone had been dressed and laid up apparently by a stone mason, without the aid of lime or other cement.

“The roof of the building was combed and covered with cedar shingles, its length being parallel with the Mississippi River.

“At the north end of the building, about 3 feet from the ground, was an opening into the interior about 2 feet square. There was no door or door frame, or woodwork of any kind about the jambs, sill or cap of this opening, and no appearance of there ever having been any.”

Price was determined to examine the vault. He grabbed a makeshift tool, crawled in and began digging in the dirt until he unearthed human skeletal remains and those of bear, raccoon and deer, along with buttons, beads and shells.

According to Dr. John P. Quigley, who saw the vault in 1838, the walls were about 4 feet high, with a door on the side facing the river. It had a ridgepole roof covered with sheet lead. Near the northeast corner was a red cedar cross about 9 feet high.

By 1845, though, between vandals and weather, the structure had lost its roof, its cross and about a foot of wall.

After years of working toward building a monument, the Early Settlers’ Association, the Iowa Institute of Science and Arts and contractor Carter Bros. began work on the Dubuque monument on Sept. 27, 1897.

The circular, castle-like structure, built of native limestone, was 25 feet high and 12 feet in diameter. At the base was an entrance to the burial vault secured by a grating.

When construction began, workers were surprised to unearth skeletons. It was commonly believed the grave had been looted long before.

Those buried there besides Dubuque were Chief Peosta, Chief Rolling Cloud, Gray Eagle and Dubuque’s wife, Potosa. The bones were carefully removed and those identified as Dubuque’s were reinterred before the monument was dedicated Oct. 31, 1897.

Potosa’s remains and those of her father, Chief Peosta, were placed in museums until 1973, when Peosta was buried near Dubuque’s monument. What happened to Potosa’s remains is unknown.

The Mines of Spain were abandoned in the early 1900s. The Iowa Conservation Commission acquired the land in 1982. The Mines of Spain Recreation Area today covers 1,437 acres of woods and prairie land, and the Julien Dubuque Mines of Spain is a National Historic Landmark.

Inscription on the Tomb of an Perfume Trader - History

Spices for the oil and incense (Sweet smelling fragrance to God)

There were three spices to be added to the frankincense and oil:

Ex 30:34 And the LORD said to Moses: "Take sweet spices, stacte and onycha and galbanum, and pure frankincense with these sweet spices there shall be equal amounts of each.

a) Stacte - A powder from the hardened drops of the fragrant resin found in the bark of the Myrrh bush. The word

b) Onycha - A powder from the horny shell cover of a clam-like mollusk found in the Red Sea. When burnt, this powder emits a penetrating aroma. The Hebrew word means- "aromatic shell". The Red Sea is an isolated warm water pocket of the Indian ocean and is known for its peculiar subspecies of mollusks.

c) Galbanum - A brownish pungent resin that exudes from the lower part of the stem of a Ferula plant. This herb plant is found at the Mediterranean Sea and has thick stalks, yellow flowers, and fern-like green foliage. It has a musky, pungent smell and is valuable because it preserves the scent of a mixed perfume, and allows of its distribution over a long period of time.

In these spices or perfumes we see Jesus as the sweet smelling aroma bringing joy to the Father's heart. When mixed with the olive oil we see the sweet illuminating work of the Spirit of Christ, and when mixed with frank-incense we see the sweetness of prayer as a "sweet smelling aroma in God's nostrils". How fitting that these perfumes would point to Christ.

Jn 8:29 "And He who sent Me is with Me. The Father has not left Me alone, for I always do those things that please Him."

Eph 5:2 And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and given Himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling aroma.

2Cor 2:15-16 For we are to God the fragrance of Christ among those who are being saved and among those who are perishing. To the one we are the aroma of death leading to death, and to the other the aroma of life leading to life. And who is sufficient for these things?

"And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among (in) them" - Exodus 25:8

The Purpose and Heart of the Law - A Devotional Message

The Tabernacle of Ancient Israel was a sanctuary which was given in a vision to Moses as a pattern and constructed by the children of Israel. God's promise was that He would dwell within the Holy of Holies above the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant.

Why Study the Tabernacle?

A) 50 Chapters Mention The Tabernacle

Because at least 50 chapters (13-Ex, 18-Lev, 13-Num, 2-Deut, 4-Heb) in the Bible tell of the construction, the ritual, the priesthood, the carrying of the tabernacle, and the meaning of it all. Also many other places in Scripture speak in figurative language concerning the tabernacle. In many Bible studies this subject is overlooked and considered insignificant.

B) The Tearing of the Veil

God Himself thought so much of the importance of the type, as shown by the tearing of the veil:

Matt 27:50-51 And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit. Then, behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom and the earth quaked, and the rocks were split,

If we don't understand the meaning in Scripture of the holy of holies and the veil we miss out on extremely significant information concerning exactly what Christ's death meant to sinful mankind.

C) The Tabernacle is a Type of Christ:

Remember what the Word says, "all Scripture is given by inspiration (God-breathed) of God. " When we look at the Bible we must remember that it is completely God-breathed. When we look at each Word we must remember that every Word is specifically God-breathed. That was the view of Christ when it came to the Scriptures, that was the view of the apostles, and that must be our view. This is the very Word of God. It doesn't just contain the Word of God, or just point to religious experience, this is the Word of God.

Is it any wonder then that each and every detail and Word about the tabernacle has spiritual significance? As we look to the tabernacle structure itself and its unique pieces of redemptive furniture there is great symbolism and typology found in them. Remember, everything was a finger pointing to the Messiah. The tabernacle, as a type, designed specifically and in detail by God, would point to the character and aspects of the ministry of Christ. The more we become familiar with the tabernacle the more we become familiar with Christ and all that He means to us. What a great reason to become familiar with the Scriptures concerning the tabernacle.

Heb 10:20 by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh,

Col 2:17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.

Jn 1:14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.

D) It is a Representation of the True Tabernacle in Heaven:

The Lord wants us to be aware of His nature and character. Even the angels don't fully understand the nature and character of God but they learn from watching His dealings with His church (Eph 3). Things are really happening in the heavenly dimension and the Lord wants to reveal to us what took place in heaven after the resurrection of Christ. There is a real tabernacle in the heavenlies and Christ really appeared before the throne of heaven as the Lamb of God (Rev 5). There is no doubt that some of these things are a mystery but the more we draw close to God and His Word the more He draws close to us.

Heb 9:11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.

E) The Presence Within the Holy of Holies Dwells Within the Believer in Jesus:

Jesus said I am the temple (Mishkan) of God. When the glory (Heb. Sh'chinah) would come down like a tornado or funnel right through the roof of the holy of holies and the Presence would manifest on the mercy seat between the cherubim after the blood was sprinkled, that was the mishkan. That Presence was what Jesus said dwelt within Him. And in fact Paul said about the church, "Know ye not that you are the temple (Mishkan) of God?" We, as the body of Christ, have the same Presence dwelling within us. God doesn't dwell in buildings now but within His people.

1 Cor 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?

F) Its teaching covers in type almost all of New Testament truth.

The study of the tabernacle is so rich in meaning to the Christian and so pregnant with Messianic significance that we can spend a lifetime in the study of it and only begin to understand the riches and the depth of truth that lies within the study of the tabernacle.

Rom 15:4 "Whatever things that were written before were written for our learning."

G) Studying the Tabernacle will absolutely strengthen our faith in the Bible.

Be assured that anyone who has delved into the wonderful details of the tabernacle will confess that the Bible is more than just a book. No man could have thought of this. The Bible is the Word of God.

"all Scripture is given by inspiration of God. "

Dialogue [ edit ]

Cinematic upon nearing Iowerth, Caithe and Trahearne:

Iowerth: Welcome, Novice. Today you get your first taste of the adventures inherent of being a member of the Durmand Priory. Iowerth: I'm so excited for you! The tomb of Mazdak. I couldn't have asked for a better trial of your abilities. <Character name>: I'm looking forward to it. So. what should we expect within the crypt? Iowerth: A challenge! Our small but clever team will be following your lead. Iowerth: We'll need to find Mazdak's chamber within the tomb. Once there, we will find a way to defeat him. I'm certain of it. Trahearne: This tomb is ancient. It may even date back to the spread of the first human settlers on Tyria. Caithe: Such places are filled with traps and other dangers. We must enter cautiously. <Character name>: I'm ready for this. I swear by Caladbolg's thorn: we will defeat Mazdak.

Speaking with your allies:

Caithe: We'll find the monster in his lair and destroy Mazdak where he sleeps. />Riannoc will finally be avenged. Trahearne: We're sure to be tested both physically and mentally. Stay by Iowerth's side. He's wise beyond his years. />I'll keep that in mind. Glad to have you with us, Trahearne.

(First gate): Only those who show respect may enter. Leave. Iowerth: How do you show respect to a door? Bring it flowers? I'm not sure. Any ideas? Bowing is a sign of respect. Maybe try that? Maybe I will. I have an idea.

After the tomb gate opens:

Iowerth: Keep your wits sharp, champion. We'll need them. Iowerth: Be cautious. This entire ruin is prone to collapse. Iowerth: You'll be an excellent novice for the Durmand Priory. I expect you to flourish! I'm glad to be here.

Iowerth: Archaeology is dangerous work, but a clever mind can keep you safe. Caithe: I see no enemies. Why do you call it dangerous? Iowerth: The danger is in the things one cannot see. Iowerth: Look at these designs. Pre-Krytan! This might have been the tomb of an ancient king. Iowerth: The door's enchanted. It won't open. Can you see any way to get through?

(Second gate): Only a sworn protector of Kryta may open these hallowed gates. Leave.

After interacting with the gate:

Iowerth: Sworn protector? Krytan ancestry, perhaps? Well, that's difficult. I'm not a sworn protector of Kryta. What do we do now? Guess we need to find someone who is, yes? Worth a try. I'll look in the crypts for something useful.

Cinematic upon opening the coffin:

Captain Bragen: You dare disturb the tomb of Mazdak, mighty conqueror of old? <Character name>: Hear me, ghost! Your master, Mazdak, has been corrupted by an ancient evil. We must pass. <Character name>: We wish to end his blight, but this enchanted door blocks our path. Will you help us, protector? Captain Bragen: Corrupted? By what foul force? Speak truth, interloper, or I will know! <Character name>: By the Elder Dragon Zhaitan. He has stolen your lord's body, and turned his spirit to evil. Captain Bragen: This is dark news. Mazdak was once lord of these lands, serving the people and the Gods. To hear he has now become a servant of evil. Captain Bragen: I will aid you travelers. I will show you the path safely through the tomb. <Character name>: Thank you, Captain. We'll end the dragon's corruption and make this right.

Iowerth: Fascinating, these old tombs. It takes a ghost to beat a. well, yes. Captain Bragen: Be wary: This corridor is trapped. You must walk as softly as. a ghost. Trahearne: Hold back friends, I have an idea. Trahearne sends a minion into the corridor. Trahearne: Whoa! Let's do better shall we? Don't want to end up like my poor minion. Iowerth: Well said Trahearne. Careful feet, everyone! Careful feet. Captain Bragen: I do not know your race, strange one, but if you are an ally to Kryta, then my sword is at your disposal. Can you tell me more about this place? This is the crypt of Mazdak, royal son of Orr, who came to these shores so that humans may raise a new nation: Kryta. Amazing. The origin of Kryta. My children, and their children, served Kryta and its throne. I do no less in death. Very interesting. A rich and noble heritage. Thank you.

After the Risen are defeated:

Trahearne: That creature was an abomination, but it was definitely not the lich. Captain Bragen: That was a creature of darkness. It had no place within this sacred tomb. Trahearne: Where you find one those creatures, you often find more. They rarely travel alone. Captain Bragen: If so, then they may be in the next chamber. That way lies the crypt of my master, Mazdak. Captain Bragen: Come. I will lead the way.

Interacting with the third gate:

(Third gate): They sacrificed their lives in our darkest hour. Light will honor them in kind. Leave.

Iowerth: Light the darkness. Seems straightforward enough. I'm not sure. What do you think it means? Light means fire. So what can we set on fire around here? Good idea. I'll find something. Agreed.

Interacting with the brazier before obtaining an Ancestor's Bone:

(Brazier): The torch won't light. An inscription mentions "bones of the ancestors." I should look for bones nearby.

After retrieving the Ancestor's Bone from the spider crypt, and interacting with the brazier:

(Brazier): Green sparks begin to flicker in the brazier. Strike the brazier with the bones. More green sparks, but the flame does not ignite. I'll try something else. Place the bones inside the brazier. Success! The torch lights. Leave. Wave the bones near the brazier in a ritualistic manner. Nothing happens. I'll try something else.

Iowerth: This should be Mazdak's actual tomb. Prepare yourself for the worst.

Cinematic upon entering the doorway to Mazdak's tomb:

Mazdak the Accursed: Sylvari, here? You have long roots for such small weeds. Mazdak the Accursed: Flee, while you still have your lives! When the human race was as young as your own, I conquered these lands and named them Kryta! Trahearne: Now I recognize these markings! Mazdak brought the first human settlers to Kryta, from Orr. No wonder he is so powerful. Trahearne: As a mortal, he lived in Orr—while the dragon slept, hidden deep beneath the ground. <Character name>: You may have once been a hero, Mazdak, but now you're nothing but Zhaitan's slave. We don't fear you. Mazdak the Accursed: Ah, but you should. Know this before you die: no weapon forged can harm me. You face your doom! <Character name>: I carry a weapon that was never forged, Mazdak. Perhaps you recognize this blade? Mazdak the Accursed: Caladbolg? I thought it was destroyed, long ago. Very well, sylvari. Let this be a battle to the death. and beyond!

Mazdak the Accursed: Pathetic little adventurers. Come, fight me. Mazdak the Accursed: I cannot be defeated! I will break Caladbolg—and you, along with it! Mazdak the Accursed: You think to avenge your dead kinsman? You will fall, as he did. Mazdak the Accursed: The touch of that sword is like fire! This cannot be!

After Mazdak's defeat (cinematic):

<Character name>: Mazdak the Accursed is dead. By the blade of Caladbolg, Riannoc is at last avenged. Iowerth: Novice, you've shown both intelligence and courage. I rate your performance as exceptional. Iowerth: You should head to Lion's Arch and receive your first formal assignment. It's time to send you out into the field. <Character name>: Thank you. I'll leave soon. <Character name>: Caithe, you're quiet. Are you injured? Caithe: No, I am thinking. Riannoc died before he could fulfill his Wyld Hunt. He died because he was alone. Caithe: If we wish to fight Zhaitan, we must not let fear or anger force us apart. If we do not find a way to defeat the dragons, Tyria will be destroyed. Caithe: Tell me, my friend. Do you think. do you think it's possible for people to let go of their differences? To unite? <Character name>: Our Dreams inspire us, Caithe. We must never give up hope, or we give up on the Dream itself. Caithe: Then I must also go to Lion's Arch. It is time to call together Destiny's Edge. Trahearne: By your leave, my friend, I'll return Caladbolg to the Pale Tree. I'll be sure to tell her the tale of Mazdak's defeat. <Character name>: Will I see you again Trahearne? Trahearne: Yes. I am sure of it. Our Wyld hunts are linked, my friend. We will need one another. Trahearne: May your path be filled with adventure and joy. Until we meet again. Iowerth: Well done, Novice! I shall write a glowing review of your performance and set it on Gixx's desk immediately! Gixx? Who's that? Ranked "Incomparable Genius" in the asura colleges, twice awarded the "Meritorius Service Medal" of the Iron Legion, Steward Gixx is the leader of the Durmand Priory. He's an asura? Isn't that a little strange? Not at all. His intellectual brilliance led him, inevitably, to the Durmand Priory. He's a bit grumpy, but astonishing, nevertheless. I can't wait to meet him. Can I ask another question? Gixx sounds interesting. Thanks for telling me about him. Wow, I look forward to meeting him. What's the next step, now that I'm a member of the Priory? You'll head to Lion's Arch to meet your mentor: a tutor assigned to train you in Priory methodology. Mentor? Who will that be? I don't know, but I'm sure Gixx will choose wisely. Your mentor's advice is critical to establishing your future in the order. Then I'm sure I'll be very impressed. Thank you, Josir [ sic ], and good-bye. I look forward to learning more about the Durmand Priory. Take care, Josir [ sic ]. Caithe wants to meet me in Lion's Arch. Is that all right? Of course. The Priory completely understands you have side-projects. You can meet your mentor after that business is done. I'm glad to hear that. Can I ask another question? I will, Josir [ sic ]. Good-bye! I look forward to a future of exploration and discovery. Farewell, Iowerth. Trahearne: I shall carry Caladbolg back to the Pale Tree, and tell her of this battle. Bless you, Herald. Caladbolg is a fine weapon. I am honored to have carried it. Perhaps in the future we will see it again. For now, I am glad it's safe in the mother's boughs. Agreed.

After giving Caladbolg to Trahearne:

Caithe: In the end, Mazdak was only mortal, and anything mortal can be defeated. I'll meet you in Lion's Arch, <Character name>. Before you go, can you tell me about Destiny's Edge? Logan, Rytlock, Eir, Snaff and his apprentice, and myself. We were readying ourselves to fight Kralkatorrik. but it all went wrong. Fight an Elder Dragon? Do you think they could have won? Then? Yes. But not now. Now when they are so. fragmented. Perhaps they will see reason. Perhaps. Can I ask you something else? I'll see you there. So, off we go to Lion's Arch. Anywhere in the city, in particular? The Trader's Forum, where we formed Destiny's Edge. I hope it reminds them of better days. Seems reasonable. Can I ask you something else? All right. I'll meet you there. See you in Lion's Arch. Trahearne: Well done, <Character name>, [ sic ] . Know that if you should need me, I will be there. Our Wyld Hunts will bring us together once more. You should come with me. No, I think not. I have more research to do on Orr. You'll do well on your own. I know it. Take care, Trahearne. What will happen to Caladbolg? I will return the sword to the Pale Tree. If it is needed, I'm sure we'll see it again. I hope you're right. I hope to see you soon.

Historical Monuments in Delhi (Pre-19th Century)

1. Humayun’s Tomb

Humayun’s Tomb is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Humayun’s Tomb is a stunning piece of Persian architecture built in the Mughal era. It was commissioned in 1526, nine years after Humayun’s death, by his widow Hamida Banu Begum. This beautiful monument is made of red sandstone.

The tomb is in the centre of Charbagh-style of gardens with pools that are connected to canals. It has two entrances: a southern side and a western side. The high central arch and the octagonal shape of the structure are important aesthetics of Mughal architectures.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 10 (Indians) Rs. 250 (foreigners)
  • Location: Mathura Road, opposite the Nizamuddin Dargah

2. Lodi Gardens

Lodi Gardens is a great picnic spot

The Lodi Gardens is one of Delhi’s very popular tourist attractions. With monuments and tombs from the Lodi and the Sayyed dynasties, the Lodi Gardens has the tombs of Sikander Lodi and Muhammad Shah.

Many people head to this garden in the mornings and evenings for walking, jogging and exercise. A beautiful picnic spot, the tomb looks even more beautiful during sunset.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset
  • Entry Fee: Entry free
  • Location: Lodhi Road, New Delhi

3. Qutub Minar

Qutub Minar was built in 1193

This 73-meter high tower was built by Qutub-ud-Din Aibak in the year 1193. Built after the defeat of Delhi’s last Hindu ruler, the Qutub Minar was constructed to celebrate the Muslim supremacy in Delhi. It is the highest tower in India, with five levels and projecting balconies. The first three levels are made up of red sandstone and the last two of marble and sandstone.

The Qutub Minar has three different types of architectural styles. The construction of the minar was started by Aibak (who only made the basement). Later, Iltutmish added on three stories and then it was completed by Firoz Shah Tuglak, who constructed the last two stories. Quwwat-us-Islam Mosque, the first mosque ever to be built in India, is situated here.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 10 (Indians), Rs. 250 (foreigners)
  • Location: Mehrauli

4. Safdarjung’s Tomb

The grave was built as a garden tomb

The Safdarjung’s Tomb is the grave of Safdarjung. This garden tomb was built in the year 1753-54 by his son, Shuja-ud-Daula. It has several small awnings, like the Moti Mahal, Jangli Mahal and Badsha Pasand.

The compound of the tomb also contains a library and a Madrasa that is being maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India. The Safdarganj’s Tomb is built on a raised platform with red sandstone and a white marble dome.

  • Timings: Sunrise to Sunset
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 5 (Indians), Rs. 100 (foreigners)
  • Location: Lodi Estate, New Delhi

5. Isa Khan’s Tomb

Isa Khan’s Tomb is among the oldest sunken garden style tombs

Isa Khan’s Tomb is located in the same compound as the Humayun’s Tomb. It was built in the 15 th century. Isa khan was an Afghan noble in the courts of Sher Shah Suri.

This tomb is very beautifully decorated with varnished tiles, ornate canopies and many verandas around. It is one of the oldest sunken garden style tombs in Delhi.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 10 (Indians), Rs. 250 (foreigners) (No fee for children below 15)
  • Location: Nizamuddin, New Delhi

6. Red Fort (Lal Qila)

Lal Qila took a decade to complete

This enormous red sandstone fort is synonymous with Delhi and is a testimony of the glory of the Mughal Empire. Built in 1638 by Shah Jahan, it took around ten years to be completed.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Red Fort is octagonal in shape with walls adorned with flowers and calligraphy, typically in the style of beautiful Mughal era architecture.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset (Monday closed)
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 10 (Indians) Rs. 250 (foreigners)
  • Location: Netaji Subhash Road, Chandini Chowk, Old Delhi

7. Alai Darwaza

Alai Darwaza was built in the 14th century

The Alai Darwaza was built by Allaudin Khilji in 1311 AD. It is the main entrance from the south side of the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque in the Qutub Minar compound. The entrance was constructed using red sandstone and decorated with white marble.

The walls have beautiful inscription in the Nashk script. The Alai Darwaza, with beautiful arches and borders that look like lotus buds, is one of the first buildings in India that was built using an Islamic architectural style.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 10 (Indians), Rs. 250 (foreigners)
  • Location: Qutub Minar Complex, Mehrauli, New Delhi

8. Jama Masjid

Jama Masjid is India’s largest mosque

The Jama Masjid is India’s largest mosque. With minarets on all four sides that reach the skies, Jama Masjid, Emperor Shah Jahan’s last architectural indulgence, was commissioned in 1650 and took six years to be built. The enormous courtyard of the Jama Masjid can hold around twenty-five thousand worshippers.

The main prayer hall has a beautiful white ceiling and the entrance is decorated with high rising arches. There is a pool right in heart of the mosque that is used by the faithful for cleansings before prayer. Note that visitors are advised to dress modestly (shorts, short skirts or sleeveless tops are NOT allowed). Since it is a house of prayer, it is necessary to remove your shoes at the entrance.

  • Timings: 7 am to an hour before sunset (summer), 8am to an hour before sunset (winter). It is closed for half an hour in the afternoon for prayers.
  • Entry Fee: Free (Rs. 200 for cameras)
  • Location: Off Netaji Subhash Marg, west of Red Fort

9. Diwan-i-Am

Diwan-i-Am was used in many important celebrations

The Diwan-i-Am is located inside the Red Fort and this is where the Emperor would meet and address the common people.

The hall is adorned with stucco work and it contains gold columns. This grand hall was also used for many state gatherings and celebrations.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset (Monday closed)
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 10 (Indians) Rs. 250 (foreigners)
  • Location: Netaji Subhash Road, Chandini Chowk, Delhi

10. Tomb of Imam Zamin

The Imam Zamin tomb features intricate jaali work

Located near the Alai Darwaza, in the Qutub Complex, is the tomb of Imam Zamin, a well-known Turkestani Imam. Imam Zamin was the Imam of the Quwwat-u-islam Mosque. He came to Delhi in the 15 th century and lived in the Qutub Complex premises during the rule of Sikandar Lodi.

It is a small tomb built with sandstone on an octagonal base the interiors are festooned with white plaster and intricate jaali work.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 10 (Indians), Rs. 250 (foreigners)
  • Location: Qutub Minar Complex, Mehrauli, New Delhi

11. Purana Qila (Old Fort)

Purana Qila is one of India’s oldest forts

The Purana Qila, one of the oldest forts in India, was built by the Afghan King, Sher Shah Suri. The fort has three entrances: the Bada Darwaza, Humayun Gate and the Talaqi Gate. All the gates are double storey structures that were constructed using sandstone.

The north and the south gate have beautiful pavilions, balconies and umbrellas that add to the beauty and the grandeur of the fort.

  • Timings: 5:30 am to 7 pm
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 5 (Indians), Rs. 100 (foreigners), Rs. 80 (entry for the sound and light show)
  • Location: Mathura Road (near Delhi Zoo), New Delhi

12. Tughlaqabad Fort

This fort has 15-metre-high walls

Built in 1321 by the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty, Ghiyas-ud-din-Tughlaq, the Tughlaqabad Fort is a massive stone structure that has walls that are around 10 to 15 metres high. This huge fort was abandoned in the year 1327. The fort initially had 52 gates, 13 out of which still remain.

  • Timings: 8 am to 6 pm.
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 5 (Indians), Rs. 100 (foreigners). No entry fee for children below15 years
  • Location: Mehrauli-Badarpur Road, New Delhi

13. Jantar Mantar

Jantar Mantar is where many protests have been held

Jantar Mantar was constructed by Maharaja Jai Singh of Jaipur in 1724. It is essentially an observatory that was made with the purpose of accumulating astronomical occurrences and information to help predict the time and the movements of celestial bodies such as the sun, moon and other planets.

The Jantar Mantar has various instruments such as the Samrat Yantra, Jayaprakash Yantra and the Misra Yantra that helped with predictions. After the construction of the Jantar Mantar in Delhi, Raja Jai Singh constructed similar structures by the same name in Jaipur, Mathura, Ujjain and Varanasi. For lovers of astronomy, the Jantar Mantar is a great place to visit.

  • Timings: Sunrise to sunset
  • Entry Fee: Rs. 5 (Indians), Rs. 100 (foreigners)
  • Location: Sansad Marg, New Delhi

Inscription on the Tomb of an Perfume Trader - History

The Gihon Spring

The only spring in Jerusalem, the Gihon is a siphonic, karstic spring, and its name means “gushing” it surges and the sound can be easily heard. It is estimated that the Gihon could have supported a population of about 2,500. The cave is a natural one, but it has been widened. Solomon was anointed at the Gihon Spring while his brother, Adonijah, was attempting to take the throne through a surreptitious coronation at En Rogel (1 Kgs 1).

The Tunnel

A 1,750-foot (530-m) tunnel carved during the reign of Hezekiah to bring water from one side of the city to the other, Hezekiah’s Tunnel together with the 6th-century tunnel of Euphalios in Greece are considered the greatest works of water engineering technology in the pre-Classical period. Had it followed a straight line, the length would have been 1070-feet (330-m) or 40% shorter.

The Construction

2 Kings 20:20 (NIV): “As for the other events of Hezekiah’s reign, all his achievements and how he made the pool and the tunnel by which he brought water into the city…”

2 Chronicles 32:30 (NIV): “It was Hezekiah who blocked the upper outlet of the Gihon spring and channeled the water down to the west side of the City of David.”

The Meeting Point

Why is the tunnel S-shaped?

R. A. S. Macalister said the tunnel was a “pathetically helpless piece of engineering.”

Henry Sulley in 1929 first suggested that Hezekiah’s tunnel followed a natural crack in the rock.

Dan Gill argues that the two crews of diggers followed a natural karstic dissolution channel.

The Location of the Siloam Inscription

“[…when] (the tunnel) was driven through. And this was the way in which it was cut through: While […] (were) still […] axe(s), each man toward his fellow, and while there were still three cubits to be cut through, [there was heard] the voice of a man calling to his fellows, for there was an overlap in the rock on the right [and on the left]. And when the tunnel was driven through, the quarrymen hewed (the rock), each man toward his fellow, axe against axe and the water flowed from the spring toward the reservoir for 1200 cubits, and the height of the rock above the head(s) of the quarrymen was 100 cubits.”

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Related Websites

Hezekiah’s Tunnel (Jewish Virtual Library) Describes the circumstances for the carving of the tunnel in biblical times. Follow this by reading Siloam Inscription, which describes the finding of the inscription in modern times.

Hezekiah’s Tunnel Reexamined (Bible History Daily) This brief article gives a very nice introduction to the tunnel, assisted by several sketches and graphs.

Hezekiah’s Tunnel (Land of the Bible) A fascinating historical perspective about the tunnel.

Hezekiah’s Tunnel (personal page) Includes photographs and a description of the author’s journey through the tunnel.

Siloam Inscription (personal page, K. C. Hanson) Gives a technical description of this ancient document and a translation of its text.

The Story of Hezekiah’s Tunnel (YouTube video from Watch Jerusalem) This 5-minute video gives a nice visual introduction to the site, including reconstructions, Bible verses, and historical background.

Gihon Spring (Engines of Our Ingenuity, University of Houston) Presents one explanation for the irregular design of the tunnel.

Hezekiah’s Tunnel (Zionism Dictionary) A historical description of the tunnel, discussing the biblical and historical context of this ancient marvel.

Siloam Inscription (Jewish Encyclopedia) This is an extensive article on the inscription, including sections titled “Description,” “The Work Described,” and “Date of the Work.”

Rock-Cut Passage Above Virgin’s Fount (excerpt from Charles Wilson’s book titled The Recovery of Jerusalem) This is an interesting section on the discovery of the tunnel, from the original excavator. It dates to 1871. Pages 194–200 in both the original and the PDF.

Tunnel Engineering in the Iron Age: Geoarchaeology of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem (Journal of Archaeological Science) Only the abstract is available online, but the interested can procure a copy of this 2006 article which would give a highly scientific perspective on the tunnel.

Inscription on the Tomb of an Perfume Trader - History

Mark 14:3 - And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious and she brake the box, and poured [it] on his head.

The Bible mentions an alabaster flask or box or more accurately "an alabastron", a small container which was filled with costly spikenard (perfumed oil). Mary came to the house of Simon the leper to anoint Jesus by breaking the jar and pouring the spikenard on his head in Mark 14. In the ancient world one of the purposes for anointing the head was to show respect and honor to the person receiving it. This is still seen in many parts of the oriental world today. Alabaster was a soft stone resembling marble, and many of these jars came from Egypt. Alabaster jars contained many interesting colors, some were translucent with veins of yellow, brown, and red. The alabaster jar usually contained olive oil, or a costly ointment or perfume. It had a long neck designed to restrict the flow and prevent waste. Mary broke the top in order to pour out the spikenard.

The above painting is a 3rd century wall painting in the synagogue at Dura Europas in Syria, it shows young David being anointed as the future king of Israel by the prophet Samuel with oil. The word "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word "Meshiach" which means "the anointed one" or to "smear the anointing oil." Ancient Hebrew kings were consecrated to God with the anointing oil.

(Heb. pak, (2 Ki 9:1,3) Gk. alabastron, <Mark 14:3>). A container usually narrowed toward the outlet and used for holding liquids such as oil, ointment, or perfume. . The KJV uses "box of oil" or "box of ointment," whereas the NASB rendering is "flask of oil" or "vial of . . . ointment," and the NIV, "alabaster jar."

(Gk. alabastron, (Mark 14:3) Heb. shesh, (1 Chr. 29:2) translated "marble" in the KJV and NIV). Identified with the substance now called oriental (or Egyptian) alabaster, also "onyx marble."

The most common form of alabaster is a fine textured variety of massive gypsum (sulfate of lime). It is very soft and therefore excellent for carving. The color is usually white but it may be gray, yellow, or red.

Large quantities of gypsum were quarried in the Jordan Valley in the days before the Hebrew people occupied this territory. Many articles were fashioned from this stone, including vases, jars, saucers, bowls, lamps, and statues. Mary of Bethany anointed Jesus with costly oil from a flask made of alabaster (Mark 14:3).

The ancient variety of alabaster is known as "oriental alabaster" (carbonate of lime), a form of marble. It is much harder than the gypsum variety but is used for the same purpose. Ancient alabaster was found only in Egypt.

Today the name alabaster is applied to a still softer stone, the compact variety of gypsum, or sulphate of lime, used for small statuettes, paper weights, and little ornaments of no great value.

The alabastrites of Theophrastus, Pliny, and the ancients generally was largely quarried and worked at Alabastron, a well-known locality near Thebes, and was the favorite material for the little flasks and vases for ointment and perfumery that are so abundant in Egyptian tombs and almost all ancient collections.

Alabaster Scriptures

Mark 14:3 - And being in Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at meat, there came a woman having an alabaster box of ointment of spikenard very precious and she brake the box, and poured [it] on his head.

Luke 7:37 - And, behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that [Jesus] sat at meat in the Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster box of ointment,

Matthew 26:7 - There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat [at meat].

Jewish Burials

The body was laid in a shallow pit or on a shelf for the first year, during which the flesh decayed, while the soul underwent the purifying process. The relatives laid tree branches on the corpse, and it was also customary to leave perfume tools in the tomb or pour perfume directly on the corpse. A year after the burial, the relatives returned to the tomb, collected the bones and put them in stone boxes: ossuaries. It was a celebration: the relatives were assured that the deceased finally arrived at his proper place, under the Seat of Honor and eternal, pure life. Now they collected the bones to the ossuary, and put the ossuary in a niche, carved into the tomb wall.

By Eldad Keynan
Bar Ilan University
October 2010

Private vs. Public burials: differences and time span.

Private burials were common among Judean Jews during the Second Temple Era (STE). 1 A pre-condition for a private burial was land ownership. Thus, only the well-to-do could afford for private burials, while the others were buried in public cemeteries, in regular trench graves. Land ownership was just one facet of the financial problem: carving a proper space into a rock or building a Mausoleum, were expensive. Researchers usually find tombs since nature and time take their toll on trench graves. Thus, when we discover a tomb, we assume that its interments were mid-upper class or simply rich. The number of rock-cut tombs we find is larger than stone-built tombs the reasons may be that 1.) Time and nature affect rock-cut tombs less than stone-built tombs and 2.) People preferred rock-cut tombs over stone-built tombs since the latter were expensive compared to the former and harder to control.2 Tombs are scattered throughout other areas in the former, larger province of Judea. Rabbinic Literature (RL) testifies for tombs as a burial practice in the second half of the 3rd century CE in Galilee.3

Structure: "lobby," standing pit, niches, shallow pits, shelves

Tombs' structures basically resemble each other. A narrow, usually square opening leads to a "lobby," mainly square as well. Niches (RL: [plural] Kukhim [single] Kukh) were carved into three of the tomb walls those were the final place of the ossuaries and their contents. This is the basic structure however, tombs differ in details. The number of niches in each wall was not a common feature some tombs have three niches in each wall, while some others have three niches in two walls, and two in the third, or the opposite. Since the height of the tombs was limited, we find standing pits around the lobby, to allow the relatives or workers better activity conditions inside the tombs. Standing pits seem to be important, yet actually not all the tombs present them.

Shallow pits (RL: mahamorot 4, biqa'5 ) were the place for corpses during the first year. In some tombs, we find four shallow pits for adults and one smaller, for children or babies.

Hillel the Elder's tomb, Upper Galilee

The number of shallow pits prevented problems that could arise when a family member died during the first year of a previous death in the family. Another first-year place was a rock-cut shelf, on which the body spent the first year.

A tomb in Meroth, East Upper Galilee

It seems that rock shelves represent an earlier type of tomb, but it has no effect on the practice and concept: shallow pits and stone shelves served the same purpose.

Preliminary burial, secondary burial – connection to the after life

STE Judaism developed a new perception of afterlife. Earlier, the afterlife concept stressed that the deceased is moving to an underground world, both with body and soul.6 However, the new concept stressed that at death the soul departs from the body while the body goes back to earth, the soul goes to Gehinom (freely translated: hell). During the first year after the burial, the soul has a trial and is purified in the heavenly court, and when it is over, it moves to heaven and is to stay there until the Messiah brings all the dead back to life. The RL states that two processes start with the burial: while the soul is purified of its sins, the bones are purified of the flesh7 reasonably it also stated that bones are not as defiled as the flesh.8

Changes in burial practices and the afterlife concept were best implemented in tombs. The body is not laid and covered with dust for eternity, like the trench graves practices. Instead, it was laid in a shallow pit or on a shelf for the first year, during which the flesh decayed, while the soul underwent the purifying process. The relatives laid tree branches on the corpse, and it was also customary to leave perfume tools in the tomb or pour perfume directly on the corpse.9 A year after the burial, the relatives returned to the tomb, collected the bones and put them in stone boxes: ossuaries (RL: Gluskema). It was a celebration: the relatives were assured that the deceased finally arrived at his proper place, under the Seat of Honor and eternal, pure life. Now they moved the bones to the ossuary, and put the ossuary in a niche, carved into the tomb wall.10

Interments: who's allowed in?

This question looks redundant: obviously, family members. However, it's not that simple. Suppose a Jew has just started a new family. He had to be rich enough to buy land and clever enough to order a tomb immediately. This act was probably the first thing Jews did when they bought land – you can never know when this need will surprise you. Now our Jew knows that he's got a burial place for him and his wife. He also knows that his sons will be buried here, and so will their sons and a long offspring's line after them. After all – a single niche contains many ossuaries, and a tomb has some niches. Thus many familial generations can dwell in a single-family tomb.

Still, our Jew's daughters were not supposed to be buried in their original family tomb since they were supposed to be buried in their husbands' families' tombs. This makes clear that our Jew's daughters-in-law had a complete right to be buried with their husbands, our Jew's sons. Of course, if this Jew lost a daughter while she was still unmarried, she would be buried in her father's tomb. In sum: Jewish tombs were strictly familial, no doubts.

Inherited burial rights: mothers, grandchildren

As said above, the sons' right to be buried with their father in his tomb was explicit, and so was the wives’ right. But wives had an additional right, one that solved problems stemming from reality. What if a woman died, and her husband and her father are fighting over her burial? Her father wants her in his tomb, just like her husband. This problem is solved as follows: if she has sons from her husband, she is to be buried in her husband's, but if she doesn't have them, she is to be buried in her father's.11

Suppose our Jew's son is now an adult, and he moved to another town, where he bought land and built a new family. Naturally, if he bought land, he ordered a tomb. Where should his mother be buried when her time comes? In her husband'shis father's tomb, or in her son's tomb? The RL puts it this way: she may order to be buried in her son's tomb – unconditionally only her demand determines the location.12

But a Jewess has another right: if she inherited a tomb, then she can order that every offspring she had, that she saw when she was alive, is allowed to be buried with her.13

Now the interment "span" is wider: not only the original family members, their mother, wives and male offspring are allowed. The last law allows a Jewess who inherited a tomb to have, in fact, every offspring she had and met while she was alive, with her in her tomb! That includes females and grandchildren. The RL is somewhat obscured here regarding gender issues. It doesn't state clearly that the female offspring are allowed, but it doesn't prohibit it clearly either. Perhaps the male grandchildren she met while alive are undoubtedly allowed.

The RL debates the inheritance rights of women: may a Jewess inherit her son, as she may her father and husband? The debates on the issue suggest that Jewesses may inherit and bequeath.14 This source is somewhat obscure indeed, yet we can have no doubts that when it comes to burials, Jewish women could order to be buried in their sons' tombs, and that any offspring they saw while they were alive will be buried with them. Formally, this law has nothing to do with inheritance practically, it is clear that Jewish women could bequeath their burial rights to their relatives of second, even third degree.

Regular dead practice, executed felons practice, moving bodies prohibition

So far, it seems that we have discussed the rich burials exclusively. One might ask: what about the spiritual rights of the poor, the dwellers of the trench graves? What about their afterlife and the earthly burial practices connected thereto? The RL gives no answer, but we can suggest a simple one: the poor did not lose anything. Jewish burial custom assumed naturally that while the bodies in trench graves were decaying, their former owners, the poor souls, underwent the same process the rich souls did: trial and purification in heavenly court. The relatives would visit the trench grave of the deceased a year after the burial and celebrate his eternal freedom. The technical gap compared to the rich burials meant nothing regarding the spiritual rights.

All these were applied to every Jew in the STE, and actually ever since. Jews are buried, until today, according to burial practices and concepts created in the STE. Still one small group had to be treated differently: Jewish felons, sentenced to death by Jewish courts. The "manual" of Jewish courts practice did not neglect the spiritual rights every such felon was entitled to. Since the court issued a death penalty, and was responsible for the execution, it was also responsible for the felon's burial and spiritual rights. For that duty, the Jewish court had two tombs under its authority. In those tombs, burial practices were strictly implemented, but only for preliminary burial. That is, executed felons' bodies were kept in the court tombs for a year, and then the felons' relatives came to the court and collected the bones, to rebury them (quote) "in their proper place,"15 The only meaning of "their proper place" is – the felons' ancestral burial site. By definition, court tombs did not have niches for ossuaries since those were meant for secondary, eternal burials. Jewish courts had a sort of local authority: if a Jew committed a crime in a place other than his own townvillage, those courts now have the authority to bring him to trial. This could cause a severe problem in terms of Jewish laws: the proper place for the felon's bones is another place, geographically. The problem is that Jewish law strictly prohibits moving bodies andor remains from one place to another in the Land of Israel. For most – bodies and bones might be "on the road" from sunrise to sunset, and then they must be buried for good. The problem seems unsolved, in cases when a felon's family lived in a place more than one day's distance from the court. Actually, although the Mishna testifies for the court tombs in Jerusalem, we know that Jews were not allowed to execute condemned felons under Roman rule, and the Romans conquered the Land in 63 BCE.16 Practically – Jewish courts could issue death sentences, but they could not and did not execute anyone, unless the judges had a death wish. We may suggest that the problem was solved by the non-existence of the practice. It should be stated here that there no evidence of actual execution by a Jewish court in RL.

Only a short note here: archaeologists noted that the tomb beneath the Holy Sepulcher has no niches but only a shelf, and it is smaller compared to regular family tombs. I believe that the tomb beneath the Holy Sepulcher was the Jerusalem court tomb, as described by the Mishna, thus meant only for preliminary burial, which had no niches and only a shelf.17

Burials as land ownership designators tombs for sale and rent not recommended but existing practice

The Hebrew Bible testifies clearly that burials designated land ownership it does so by the expressions: Nakhalat Avot (ancestors' property) Vayishkav i'm Avotav (he is laid with his ancestors). The RL went further not only that it stressed the importance of familial burials, it also stressed that a Jew who carved a tomb for his father, and then buried his father elsewhere, will lose his right to be buried in the tomb he carved.18 This rule's meaning is much more than merely religious it exemplifies the concept of announcing family estate ownership through burials. No private object lasts longer than a tomb keeping a family property under its control was extremely important in ancient Judaism. Reliance upon well-saved documents required reliance upon the quality of materials. On the other hand, when the relatives of a deceased inscribed on his ossuary X son of Y, they could well be sure that in the visible future, none will question his (nor theirs) identity and ownership of the tomb and the land it is on. As we have seen above, tombs were familial assets explicitly a piece of family real estate that proves the family ownership and designates it. Accordingly, we would not expect to find any ancient law that deals with tombs ownership transfer. One might even claim, logically, that there is no such law, since the sheer possibility did not exist. As much as this sounds logical and practical, the RL testifies, again, for living reality against pure theory. It discusses the practical (yet negative) implications of a tomb sale!19

Obviously, this legal treatment meant to warn Jews: keep your tombs’ ownership strictly and tightly. The natural conclusion is that Jewish burial customs did not recommend the practice of selling niches in tombs or the entire tombs. But no Jewish law ever prohibited, directly or indirectly, explicitly or obscurely, the transfer of tomb ownership.

1 J. Magness, "What Did Jesus’ Tomb Look Like?" The Burial of Jesus, Eds. K. E. Miller et al. (2007) 1-8, p. 4. A. Kloner, "Did a Rolling Stone Close Jesus’ Tomb?" The Burial of Jesus. Eds. K. E. Miller et al. (2007): 9-13, generally discusses the gaps between simple burials and the wealthy Jews' tombs Magness "Tomb", p. 2

J. Magness, "The Burial of Jesus in Light of Archaeology and the Gospels," ErIsr, Vol. 28 (2007): 1-7, p. 1, agrees with Kloner.

2 Henceforth the term "tomb" will designate rock-cut tombs.

3 Gen. Raba, (Eds. Theodor-Albeck, p. 1087), Mikets 89. J. Talmud, Av. Zar. 1:9, 40a, testifies for tomb burials even as late as mid-4th century CE (see below).

4 J. Talmud, Mo. Kat. 1 5, 80c, J. Talmud, Sanh. 6:10, 23d.

6 Sheol: Ezekiel 32:27, Hoshea' 13:14, Psalms 30:4: Shakhat: Ezekiel 28:8, Psalms 55:24, Dumah: Psalms 115:17.

7 B. Talmud, Shabat, 152a. See also Kloner, "Stone" p. 9 Magness, Tomb, p. 2 - the familial nature of tombs in STE. For the decaying flesh process: Kloner, "Stone," p. 10.

10 J. Talmud, Mo. Kat. 1:5, 80d J. Talmud, Sanh. 6:10, 23d.

15 m. sanh. 6 5-6 parallels: y. sanh. 6 9, 23b. b. sanh. 46a.

16 I. L. Levine, "The Face of the Era: Erets Israel as a Part of the Roman Empire and the Great Revolt,” the History of Erets Israel. (Hebrew) Vol. 4. Ed. M. Stern. Jerusalem (1990): 11-280, p. 95. See also John 18:3 when Pilate told the Jews to judge Jesus by the Torah, they replied: "we have no authority to execute any person".

19 J. Talmud, B. Bat. 3 4,13d in J. Talmud, Av. Zar. 1:9, 40a, a mid 4th century sage, R. Yosey son of R. Bon, instructs not even to rent a tomb to gentiles. This prohibition testifies for actual practice and excludes tomb rent to Jews. It is a part of a discussion of the ways to keep the Land of Israel under Jewish ownership and control. It does stress the role tombs played as land ownership designators.

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